3.3 Concurrent Sessions - Contributed papers
Contributed papers represent the wide range of research undertaken by the OMRN members, the challenges of ocean management and the scope of the Oceans Action Plan. In efforts to balance access to the wealth of information found in the papers and the limited amount of time available, the National Secretariat reviewed the submitted abstracts and attempted to group papers by subject matter. The chairs for each group of paper presentations were asked to provide a summary of the key points and any research or actions recommended in discussions. The abstracts and notes from session chairs have provided the basis for the summaries provided in this section. The assistance from the session chairs was invaluable and greatly appreciated.
Friday, September 30, 2005
Concurrent Paper Session 1, 2:00 - 3:30 PM
3.3.1 Adaptive Co-Management I Chair: Fikret Berkes
Presenters: John Kearney, Patrick McConney, Lawrence Baschak, Derek Armitage Main Points
From conceptualization of communities to lessons learnt from cases in the Caribbean, these presentations dealt with defining characteristics and elements of adaptive co-management. What is ACM? ACM combines the dynamic learning characteristic of adaptive management, or learning-by-doing in an iterative way, with the linkage characteristic of cooperative management.
Kearney explored the question, what is community, and how to build adaptive capacity at the local level to increase resilience in the face of change. McConney discussed uncertainty and complexity, sharing “lessons learnt” from Belize, Barbados, Grenada and the Grenadine Islands. Baschak provided the perspective of the policy practitioner and emphasized the importance of an enabling policy environment for ACM. Armitage discussed the northern Narwhal case as lessons for ACM.
Policy Recommendations OMRN Role
- The role of learning in ACM needs to be researched further.
- Little is known about the transferability of “lessons learned”.
Consistent with the above recommendations, the OMRN should use its networking and student support functions to:
- Promote the role of ACM in ocean and coastal management.
- Encourage researchers to explore further the “adaptive” aspect of ACM
- Facilitate the exchange of ACM experiences in the various regions: the Pacific, the Atlantic, the North, and internationally.
- Encourage graduate student research on ACM cases to identify best practices and barriers.
3.3.2 Integrated Management Chair: Ken Huffman
Presenters: Reade Davis, Steve Plante, Julie Guillemot, Omer Chouinard Main Points
The Oceans Act of 1996 introduced the concept of integrated management (IM) as the new approach to coastal and marine resource management. IM has been heralded as a dramatic improvement over the traditional ‘command and control’ management approach. In theory, IM will help facilitate better-informed management decisions, allowing for the meaningful consideration of a wide range of differing perspectives. Davis’s research has investigated some of the practicalities of IM implementation through interviews with ocean users in Newfoundland; his findings indicate that IM will require trade-offs.
Two papers addressed IM in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Dalcourt outlined the practical experience gained by the IM group within DFO in building IM processes and structures that can be used effectively by community partners. This experience will be transferred to two major federal/provincial IM initiatives in the Gulf. Plante described IM capacity building in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the approaches developed for integrated management, especially those on the inhabited islands.
- None were identified: moving IM from theory to practice can be expected to identify gaps in the future.
- No specific research was identified.
- The OMRN should continue to support all levels of investigation into implementation of IM and ensure that information from IM projects is disseminated
3.3.3 Marine Protected Areas Chair: John Roff
Presenters: Andrew Lewin, Valerie Kendall, Katalin Komjathy
Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are tools for the conservation of marine ecosystems under Canada’s Ocean Act and elsewhere. Session discussions varied from defining adequate size and boundaries of MPAs in specific case studies to lessons learnt in a more global context. Lewin described species-area relationships on the Scotian Shelf to determine appropriate MPA size as a means to protecting maximum species diversity. Comprehensive trawl studies are vital in the analysis for demersal fish species. Kendall discussed methodologies used to determine critical life history stages of a subpopulation of Atlantic cod in Gilbert Bay, an Area of Interest (AOI) under Canada’s Ocean Act. Komjathy’s presentation focussed on progress in international discussions on MPA boundary research within the past five years. He described a methodology to examine potential conflicts in the development of a proposed National Marine Conservation Area in the Southern Strait of Georgia, and how the results can help planners to determine zoning strategies for the area.
- The applicability of critical life history methodology to other species requiring MPA protection should be researched.
- The applicability of conflict resolution methodologies in MPA planning to other MPA sites should be researched.
- MPA managers and management researchers should make use of lessons learnt and different types of information in MPA designation available from the international community over the past five years.
- The OMRN should continue to provide a forum for researchers to explore and discuss evolution of and new research associated with MPAs.
3.3.4 Fishery Management and Policy Chair: Dan Lane
Presenters: Caroline Butler, Scott Parsons and Dan Lane, Anne Sweeney Main Points
The presentations outlined the evolution of, and trends in, fishing practises and regulations. In some instances these were complicated or defined by confrontations or fear, based on case studies from the east and west coasts of Canada.
Butler discussed new trends in fishing practice and licensing in BC and noted shifts in the forms of fisheries knowledge. For example, fishers’ political knowledge, rather than ecological knowledge, often determines their success in a quota-based fishery. Parsons and Lane reviewed the performance of the Atlantic Fisheries Policy Review formed to develop a new management framework for Canada’s east coast fish stocks. They pointed to its lack of success due to many internal and external pressures. Sweeney described the regulation of the bloodworm harvest in Nova Scotia, and described how management efforts and results were vastly different in the two areas due to participant attitudes. Adlam’s paper (not presented) reported on the challenges presented by the entry of Aboriginal fishers into the New Brunswick commercial lobster fishery.
- Further research is required to measure the performance of fisheries management and policy, and the accountability of programs to their original objectives and mandates.
- Further research and consultation with stakeholders are needed in the bloodworm fishery in Yarmouth County to determine the appropriate form of licensing and regulation.
- Encourage managers, the industry and harvesters to understand how fishers’ political knowledge influences fishing practice and industry investment so that socially and ecologically sustainable fisheries management structures are developed.
- Develop relationships with stakeholders of the bloodworm fishery in Yarmouth County in order to establish an appropriate regulation of the fishery.
- The OMRN should continue to encourage discussion of methodologies for evaluating the performance of management schemes.
- The OMRN should encourage the sharing of lessons learned in case studies of fisheries management.
3.3.5 Arctic Chair: Carol Amaratunga
Presenters: Monica Schuegraf, Sherrie Blakney and Thomas Suluk,
Johanna Wandel, C.A. Chambers Main Points
The presentations included an examination of the predictive power of environmental variables on benthic fish community composition; the challenges of face-to-face sharing of research findings in communities in NWT; a discussion of the complex dynamics of federal-community relations and the resistance to resource management in the Kivalliq region of Nunavut; and the characterization of Inuit responses to changes in the coastal environment. In the latter presentation, components of traditional Inuit culture were identified as having enabled adaptability, whereas changing livelihoods have undermined their adaptive capacity so creating vulnerability in some sectors of the community. Some of the points raised included: the challenges of communication and cross-cultural research in the North; the challenges and dangers of the geography; and the need for trust and relationship building. All four presentations emphasized the inter-relationships of people, climate, geography and the challenge of collecting the “dark”, i.e. community knowledge.
- The knowledge of arctic marine communities should be expanded.
- Develop formal agreements to promote mutual respect and understanding between Inuit and southerners.
- Reactivate the Hudson Bay Working Group.
- Create DFO/community liaison offices.
- Commit to the long-term hiring of extra DFO Arctic staff to provide technical support, education and training.
- Provide additional monies for Hunter Trapper Organizations.
- Provide greater clarity in the coordination of the sampling program.
3.3.6 Coasts Under Stress Chair: Rosemary Ommer
Presenters: Rosemary E. Ommer, Nigel Haggan, Melanie D. Antweiler-Power Main Points
One of the presentations reviewed case studies from the east and west coasts of Canada, and discussed how the integrity of a marine ecosystem that is managed effectively requires a combination of sound scientific knowledge with an understanding of the goals and interests of the various stakeholders. Another presentation argued on behalf of the Aboriginal view of a connected ecosystem, and the role that it could play in re-uniting ecosystem-based management with integrated management. Another presentation evaluated the successes and shortcomings of the aquaculture industry in BC and in Newfoundland in an attempt to determine why public opinion is polarized around the issue of farmed fish in the former jurisdiction while it receives support in the latter. Issues arising from the discussion included the need for a more comprehensive, finer spatial and temporal scale approach to studying and managing the fisheries, a management that seeks to promote equity and the health of coastal communities, and that addresses scale mismatches and risk and benefit misalignments. The role of communities, the value of local knowledge and considerations of scale apply to both the capture fisheries and aquaculture.
Gaps/Research Needs/Policy Recommendations
- There is a need to employ multiple conservation strategies that are inclusive of habitat, life cycle, predator-prey interactions, and larger ecosystem processes and that also reflect an understanding of the human dimension of fisheries.
- Local knowledge from fishers should be more effectively used and integrated with fisheries science.
- Science and management need to be more socially inclusive of elders and retired persons as well as those currently involved in harvesting and processing. For this to happen, leadership, innovation and experimentation need to be encouraged within communities as well as in all levels of government.
- Financial and capacity-building support is required to protect the infrastructure when shore-based fisheries are passed over to communities to manage.
- More investment is needed to assemble, test and deepen the existing knowledge of fisheries ecology, the state of marine ecosystems, and to support local efforts to experiment with different approaches to management and enhancement.
- Innovative conservation initiatives, e.g., Eastport, Newfoundland, are often achieved despite government resistance. For these types of projects to be successfully reproduced elsewhere, they must receive financial and scientific support.
- Conservation management plans by harvesters still tend to be single-species management plans. Reinvestment in state and academic research is needed to improve the limited understanding of marine ecosystems and to increase the chances of fish stock rehabilitation.
- DFO-fisher-fishery community relationships should be improved.
- Relations between DFO, communities, and aquaculture companies should be improved in order to reduce tensions and permit honest discussion on the need for aquaculture in particular areas.
- Novel approaches, such as enclosed and/or land-based aquaculture technologies, should be explored and, where promising, supported.
- A commitment from DFO is needed for the long-term survival of wild fisheries.
- A commitment is required from DFO to work with other government agencies in pursuit of equity as well as efficiency to ensure the survival of our coastal communities.
3.3.7 Geospatial Tools Chair: Michael Sutherland
Presenters: Michael D. Sutherland, Guglielmo Tita, Candace Newman Main Points
The three presentations focussed on the discussion of various geospatial approaches to evaluating marine sites, and their applicability to the management of coastal resources. One presentation discussed the coupling of GIS with multi-criteria hierarchical analysis (MHA), in a case study around the Magdalen Islands, as an approach in determining suitable coastal areas for shellfish farming. Another proposed a Remote-Sensing Integration Framework, that is, the merging of environmental indicators with the viewpoint of local people dependent on the resource, as an approach to coastal management issues. The discussion focussed on the framework, as well as the lessons learned from its application to a small island community. A third presentation described a model that supports a multi-criteria decision-making process which should support collaborative, integrative and cooperative governance of marine spaces of interest.
Policy Recommendations/OMRN role
- A clearly defined methodology is needed for estimating cumulative effects in the marine environment.
- Appropriate geospatial tools to meet the needs of coastal communities must be identified.
- Explore the potential of GIS-MHA as a decision-support tool for integrated coastal zone management.
- Explore the potential role of remote sensing in the management of coastal resources.
Friday, October 1, 2005
Concurrent Paper Session 2, 4:00 – 5:30 PM
3.3.8 Adaptive Co-Management II Chair: Derek Armitage
Presenters: Nathan Deutsch, Tony Charles, Kate Bigney Main Points
The presentations centred on defining adaptive co-management (ACM) and illustrating key issues and challenges through different case studies (one European, two from Atlantic Canada). Deutsch explored collaborative learning and the role of leaders in ACM. Charles examined the four key ‘ingredients’ of ACM, and discussed the progress, and lack thereof, in moving the Atlantic Canadian groundfish fishery toward ACM. Bigney assessed the co-management of the Scotia-Fundy groundfish.
Policy Recommendations OMRN Role
- Learning is a complex phenomenon in ACM; greater clarity on approaches, goals/objectives and the role of leadership are required.
- The social context of ACM needs to be prioritized.
- More attention to institutional pre-conditions for ACM is required.
- The OMRN should promote the role the ACM in ocean and coastal management.
- The OMRN should encourage researchers to explore further the “adaptive” in ACM and the role of learning, including additional support for graduate student research.
- The OMRN should facilitate the exchange of experiences in ACM in various regions: the Pacific, the Atlantic, the North, and internationally.
3.3.9 Integrated Management Chair: Dick Carson
Presenters: Scott Coffen-Smout, Michael Sutherland, Colleen Mercer Clarke, Michael Butler Main Points
The multi-disciplinary approach of Integrated Management has been recognized as an appropriate framework for oceans’ management. These four presentations discussed changes to, or the need for new, integrated coastal management structures and organizations in Canada.
Coffen-Smout presented the main elements of the draft Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative, a process led by DFO under Canada’s Ocean Act, as well as reporting on the public response and the next steps. Sutherland suggested that three disciplines are missing from IM’s traditional focus on sustainable development: science and technology, policy science, and geography; information from these components are also necessary for Canada to effectively manage its coastal and offshore jurisdictions. Mercer Clarke discussed new patterns of human development and resource use in the Bay of Fundy in the context of climate change with the possible result of infrastructure damage and habitat and species loss. She posited the need for a coordinating body to monitor these changes. Butler described the confluence of two projects – the Atlantic ICOM Community of Practice with the Coastal and Ocean Information Network - Atlantic (COINAtlantic) – to help facilitate information transactions and rapid sharing of experiences in Atlantic Canada.
- There is a need to close the gaps between science and technology, policy studies and geography and to integrate these components, as a whole, into sustainable development analyses.
- Good governance and efficient management of Canada’s coastal and marine spaces needs more accurate, complete, up-to-date and useful information, including information on spatial extents, rights, responsibilities and restrictions.
- The government should establish a coordinating organization to monitor the health of the Bay of Fundy in light of changes in the physical, biological and human environment in the region together with emerging effects of climate change.
- The OMRN should encourage further discussion on the process and evolution of Integrated Management as a framework for oceans’ management.
- The OMRN should continue to provide a forum for lessons learnt in Integrated Management.
3.3.10 Planning for Marine Conservation Chair: Doug Yurick
Presenters: Natalie Ban, Frederic Lessard, John Clarke
The presentations described work in progress dealing with regard to the health of oceans, one of the four pillars of the Oceans Action Plan. One presentation outlined work underway to develop a Canada-wide strategy for the management of municipal wastewater effluents. Another considered the definition of marine wilderness, concluding that intense use of the marine environment along the BC coast is widespread and that there are few protected places. Another presented preliminary results of a focus group on the conservation of marine mammals at risk in the St. Lawrence River estuary.
- Scientific input is being sought for the continuing development of an EC-led strategy initiative involving the analysis and risk reduction associated with municipal wastewater discharges.
- More research is needed on the impact of municipal wastewater pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and brominated flame retardants, on the environment.
- Implement interim and permanent protective measures for key spaces along the BC coast.
- Use the results of the marine mammals at risk study as a tool in DFO’s policy decision-making process. This research will have applicability to recovery programs for marine mammals listed under the Species at Risk Act.
- The OMRN should continue to provide a forum for discussion of issues related to the health of oceans.
3.3.11 Oil and Gas Chair: Darren Hicks
Presenters: Mona Madill, Lucia Fanning, Gail Fraser, Fasihur Rahman
The presentations included an aboriginal perspective on petroleum development on Canada’s west coast, and an evaluation of the accessibility of oil spill data in Eastern Canada.
The participants concluded that there seems to be a disconnect between government policy, i.e. sustainable development and the promotion of the precautionary approach, and what is happening “on the ground”; proper management requires all voices to be heard; a bottom-up process is required; there are numerous questions that need to be answered before fears of petroleum development are addressed.
- Further research is required with regard to oil spills.
- Statistical predictions are often misleading because these are based on past data which are not verified and the industry is very hesitant to release actual data. Current forms of reporting spills prevent a comparison of the predicted with the observed spill size and frequency.
- Some data gaps exist which require medium-term and long-term studies re seismic testing activity.
- The government needs to address the federal EA process that lacks a feedback mechanism concerning oil spills.
- Change legislation that currently only permits regulatory agencies to publish information on a spill that involves a legal investigation.
- Encourage industry to release actual oil spill data rather than summary spill statistics. Oil spills should not be considered proprietary data and should be released annually on a per-platform basis.
- In spite of commitments by the petroleum Boards to disclose information, this data is still difficult to obtain. Oil spill data is more accessible through federal departments (EC and Coast Guard) than the “Boards”. The timely release of data by the Boards would promote positive public relations.
- The OMRN should encourage oil industry to release oil spill data to enable more accurate spill prediction analysis.
- The OMRN should encourage further research on potential petroleum accidents.
3.3.12 Traditional Knowledge Chair: Evelyn Pinkerton
Presenters: Evelyn Pinkerton, Katie Beach, Doug Clark, Scott Slocombe, Cheri Ayers Main Points
The need for marine conservation strategies to explore and embrace traditional Aboriginal ecological knowledge was a pivotal premise in all three presentations.
Pinkerton and Beach presented the problem of communications breakdown between First Nations harvesters and government scientists as they faced a common crisis: shellfish industry closures due to water quality issues. Clark described the challenges faced in designing a project that hinges on the integration of local knowledge and natural science to address shellfish pollution issues. Slocombe discussed the rift between scientific accounts and local perspectives that challenged effective bear management in northern Canada. He described a model that promotes understanding of diverse viewpoints through collaborative efforts. The results of focus group consultations that examined the attitudes of Salish indigenous peoples toward MPAs in BC were presented by Ayers and Dearden. The presenters also discussed efforts to lobby for a Hul’qumi’num Management and Harvest Area, a model that incorporates both indigenous harvest and conservation zones.
- The government and scientists need to understand the reliance of indigenous peoples on marine resources for food, social, ceremonial and economic development. They must also understand the indigenous peoples’ marine conservation principles and strategies.
- The government must find ways to clearly explain, and involve BC shellfish harvesters with water quality sampling protocols.
- The government needs to address gaps in BC’s current shellfish management strategy in terms of integrating local knowledge.
- Wildlife management regimes in Northern Canada need to recognize legitimacy of different knowledge systems, and work toward collaborative efforts in understanding system dynamics.
- Increase the participation of indigenous peoples in the management and conservation of marine resources.
- The OMRN should continue to provide fora to discuss and explore ways to incorporate traditional knowledge in new and existing wildlife and marine governance structure
3.3.13 Coastal Zone Canada Association Chair: Peter Ricketts
Presenters: Peter Ricketts, Leslie Grattan, Steve Newton
The Coastal Zone Canada Association (CZCA) is a national association formed in 1993 to promote Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management (ICOM) in Canada and throughout the world. CZCA holds international conferences every two years. Ricketts reported that through its six conferences to date, CZCA has provided a forum for more than 2 000 individuals from all levels of government, industry, science and academia, NGOs, First Nations, community organizations and youth from more than 60 countries. Each conference has concluded with a Call for Action or Conference Statement offering specific guidance and recommendations for moving forward in ICOM. These conference documents have been effective in encouraging and supporting such as actions as the Canada Oceans Act, the Canada’s Oceans Strategy, the use of community co-management, and the importance of Marine Protected Areas.
Grattan briefly outlined the objectives of the CZCA Conference 2004, held in St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, All Within One Ocean: Cooperation in Sustainable Coastal and Ocean Management; the results of the Youth Forum; and the development of the Conference Statement with specific recommendations for the Oceans Action Plan.
Newton invited the OMRN Conference participants to attend CZC Conference 2006 to be held in Tuktoyaktuk, NWT. The Conference, Arctic Change and Coastal Communities, will focus on drivers of change, the well-being of communities and ocean governance.
- There is a need for a single, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary National Oceans Council to provide advice and support to the Oceans Action Plan.
- Maintain the document Baseline 2000, an up-to-date reference for ICOM research and initiatives in Canada.
- Establish a National Oceans Council.
- The CZCA and the OMRN have formally acknowledged their shared interests though a Letter of Agreement, signed at the CZC Conference 2004. Collaboration is ongoing and includes support of their respective conferences to be held on alternative years.
3.3.14 Sustainability Chair: Deatra Walsh
Presenters: Chris Malcolm, Leah Fusco, Deatra Walsh, Peter Sinclair
Fusco questioned whether sustainable development is an effective strategy for change. Discussion centred on mainstream understandings of this pivotal environmental principle and the implications for policies in the offshore oil industry. Similarly, Walsh exposed the theoretical debates and ambiguities surrounding the concept of sustainability. As an example, Walsh presented a case study of a rural community with historical ties to the fishery, and proposed directions for future conceptual development. Malcolm described two case studies to illustrate regional differences and difficulties inherent in developing federal legislation to regulate the whale-watching industry.
- A more complete ecological knowledge of whale populations is needed in terms of potential impact of the whale-watching industry.
- More research is required to further develop whale-viewing protocols.
- Develop more comprehensive science-based whale viewing protocols.
- Amend the Marine Mammal Regulations of the federal Fisheries Act to include regulation of whale-watching activities, taking into consideration regional differences in the industry.
- The OMRN should encourage future discussions on the theory and practice of sustainability and directions for its further development.
- The OMRN should encourage future fora for discussing evolving industries and their impact on marine ecosystems such as the growing animal tourism industry.
Saturday, October 2, 2005
Concurrent Paper Session 3, 11:00 AM – 12:30 PM
3.3.15 Adaptive Co-Management III Chair: Nancy Doubleday
Presenters: Nancy Doubleday, Fikret Berkes, Evelyn Pinkerton, Ryan Plummer, John FitzGibbon Main Points
Doubleday introduced the idea of linking adaptive co-management to the Holling adaptive cycle in the context of understanding policy. Berkes presented an overview of the development of co-management and adaptive co-management, including a wide-range of examples. Pinkerton examined Canadian west coast experience with management agencies and the barriers that arise with respect to development of effective multi-sector co-management bodies. Plummer and FitzGibbon explored the potential that adaptive co-management offers for development of learning communities using examples of co-managed river corridors in southern Ontario.
- The need to learn how to create “spaces” for the development of “social capital” for ACM was identified.
- The need to link academics, policy people, communities and others in broad interactive systems, communications, and practices was identified.
- The need to explore issues of governance across multiple scales was identified.
- The need to pursue praxis through approaches such as ACM was identified.
- Provide ‘rewards’ for participation in co-management and ACM that produce constructive outcomes.
- With ACM’s potential to contribute to a wide range of resource and policy questions, the OMRN should consider making ACM a significant focus of activity.
3.3.16 Ocean Governance Chair: Dan Lane
Presenters: Claude Rioux, Dan Lane and Henri Motte, Scott Parsons, Dan Rubenstein Main Points
Two of the papers addressed the ‘new’ approach to ocean governance, including that of inclusivity whereby an authoritative regime is replaced by one that must take a new approach to the three factors of market, government and the society or the community of interest. Rioux discussed the essential ingredient of new governance as it attempts to address the complex issues of marine resource management - that of mutual trust among partners. Rubenstein described the new approach as Collaborative/Ecosystem Oceans Governance and addressed the challenge of measuring the effectiveness of this new approach to ocean governance using a conceptual model. The model attempted to link oceans policy and results, and uses Indicators of Accountability as a proxy measure of efficacy. Rubenstein came to the conclusion comparable to that of Rioux, stating: ‘The new model is based on trust; the machinery of government is based on blame.’
Two papers spoke directly to the lack of effectiveness of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) as a management mechanism for the high seas and/or international straddling stocks. Both presentations proposed alternate management methods or even replacing NAFO, described by Parsons as a ‘toothless tiger’. Motte and Lane suggested formulating a clear statement of the multiple objectives of the access and allocation rights, and delineating commercial property rights instead of national rights via long-term stock ‘leases’.
- Effective ocean resource management and the means to measure oceans governance performance are recognized as gaps.
- There is a need to determine quantitative and qualitative measures of inclusivity, trust, and objectives in oceans governance.
- In the face of existing ineffective oceans governance systems, especially on the high seas, Canada should pursue alternate international mechanisms for the management of high seas fish stocks.
- The OMRN should continue to provide a forum for ocean governance both at national and international conferences and to raise this important issue as opportunities arise.
3.3.17 Ecosystem-Based Management Chair: David VanderZwaag
Presenters: Jay Walmsley, Tim Hall, Scott Coffen-Smout,
Michelle Patterson, Lucassie Arragutainaq Main Points
One presentation provided a global perspective by outlining and evaluating the different approaches taken to developing objectives for marine ecosystem-based management initiatives by various countries or programs, and comparing them to the approach of Canada’s Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management (ESSIM) Initiative led by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO).
Two presentations discussed the state and challenges of marine management collaboration in two Canadian regions: BC and the Hudson Bay/James Bay area. In BC, several agencies and organizations contribute science and analysis to marine management but the approach is poorly integrated and information gaps exist. To help address this collaborative research problem, a new organization - PacMARA (Pacific Marine Analysis and Research Association) - has been formed. One presentation examined four organizations in Canada and the USA and discussed critical elements of successful science collaborations. In a similar vein, the other presentation discussed the need for an inter-jurisdictional environmental impact assessment process for the Hudson Bay region.
- There is a need to develop a framework for integrating local knowledge into planning and decision-making in marine ecosystem-based management.
- The cumulative impacts of human activities on marine ecosystems is little understood.
- There is lack of understanding regarding the meanings of ecosystem-based management and approach.
- Develop educational and informational materials that explain principles, such as ecosystem-based management, to the Canadian public.
- Further develop indicators of ecosystem health.
- The OMRN should support the proposed international and interdisciplinary Summit on the future of the Hudson Bay/James Bay ecosystem.
- The OMRN should convene further workshops on ecosystem-based management.
- The OMRN should advocate that the Hudson Bay/James Bay be re-established as an ecosystem planning priority.
3.3.18 Aquaculture Chair: Leslie Grattan
Presenters: Kelly Barrington, Meredith Hutchison, Michael Wowchuk, Stewart Lindale Main Points
Two presentations discussed public perceptions of aquaculture using information from focus groups. Main findings are that the public is hearing more negative information than positive about aquaculture: too often, the public is not given opportunity to participate in planning and decisions re aquaculture. Increased transparency and balanced information could lead to the public being more open to positive information about aquaculture.
Two presentations discussed a pilot project using integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in which salmon, mussels and seaweed are grown together as means of addressing waste management and costs. Mussels and seaweed appeared to flourish in such a system with mussels doubling their weight and a 46% increase in kelp biomass. As well as addressing efficiency and costs, can IMTA persuade the public of the benefits and acceptability of aquaculture?
- A means must be found to reach a wide range of public, especially in rural areas, to inform and engage them in aquaculture discussions and planning. Interactive web conversations are useful but not universal.
- The government needs an in-depth understanding of aquaculture and of the public’s concerns about aquaculture in order to develop effective, proactive aquaculture information and support programs.
- Focus groups have identified key negative issues regarding aquaculture that must be addressed: environmental concerns; escaped fish effect on genetic survival of wild fish; high cost of entry into aquaculture; negative effects on coastal culture; farmed fish not as ‘good’ as wild fish; and the apparent lack of regulation by Health Canada.
- Industry and government should use focus groups to develop marketing strategies.
- Industry and government should work together with the public to build an understanding of the costs and benefits of aquaculture as well providing a role for the public in site selection and monitoring. They must move away from an ad hoc approach.
- Industry and government should continue an assessment of IMTA.
- The OMRN should continue to provide a forum for balanced debate and discussion regarding aquaculture.
3.3.19 Climate Change and Adaptations Chair: Colleen Mercer Clarke
Presenters: Michelle Boyle, Terry A. Dick, Omer Chouinard, Gita J. Laidler
Three presentations discussed Arctic communities in the context of understanding of, and adaptation to, climate change. One presented a study of the development and testing of an analytic tool for community strategic planning under conditions of high uncertainty. Another discussed a practical approach for a new mode of Arctic transportation. Airships, for example, present a minimal environmental footprint, work best in cold dense air, are suitable for researchers accessing remote areas and may present economic benefits in future. A third presentation explored Inuit perspectives on sea ice as a means to bridge science-Inuit knowledge systems with regard to this particular marine environment.
The implications of sea level rise on communities and natural habitats in New Brunswick were discussed in another presentation. The shoreline is undergoing pressures from increased housing construction and loss of beach area from rising sea levels. There is a need for leadership, communication and awareness for communities to better respond to shoreline development, relocation and related issues of habitat protection and restoration.
- Climate change currently does not have a high priority in Arctic communities. However, northern communities may not have the luxury of trading short-term gains for long-term goals. How can these related issues be addressed?
- There is a need to incorporate values and perceptions in strategic planning in Arctic communities.
- There is a need to follow-up and work with the 3 communities in the Nunavut case study on long-term community economic development planning.
- There is a lack of information on coastal effects of sea level changes. Adaptation requires money, but who pays?
- Address the lack of fisheries policies in the North.
- Develop a plan to test the potential of airships, as an alternate Arctic transportation system, in the upcoming International Polar Year (2007).
- Explore the application of airship transportation in the context of sovereignty.
- Focus on government regulation and appropriate action to protect the coastal zone.
- Inform and educate the public on effects of sea level change.
- Identify a leadership role for government in defining and communicating to communities appropriate responses to sea level changes in the context of shoreline development, relocation, coastal habitat protection and restoration.
3.3.20 Changing Currents Chair: Sylvie Guenette
Presenters: Patricia Gallaugher, Leah Bendell-Young, Richard Haedrich, Sue Nichols Main Points
In February 2005, the workshop “Changing currents: Charting a course of action for the future of oceans” aimed at defining a new course of action for the future of the oceans. It focussed on the analysis of ‘resisters and enablers’ of the integration of science with policy and decision making in the management of ocean and coastal resources.
The lack of integration of science into management decisions is a matter of both structure (process, hierarch, silos etc) and mindset. However, the case of selective fishing policy for BC salmon shows that integration of science is possible when there is effective communication, partnerships and involvement of industry in experiments and the development and implementation of policy.
The obstacles to taking action identified in this session go beyond the lack of collaboration among agencies in sharing data and infrastructure. The lack of acknowledgement of scientific evidence ranged from ignoring the facts to discrediting scientists who present a different perspective. In addition some laws and frameworks for action allow ministers to ignore the danger by softening regulations.
- There is a need to integrate more fully science and resource management.
- Mechanisms for integrated decision making are often met by strong resistance from both governments and industry, e.g., the demise of the Northern Cod in Atlantic Canada and aquaculture in general.
- Develop integrated approaches for the analysis of commercial species for possible ‘listing’ under SARA.
- Initiate the development of a comprehensive and shared GIS database for coastal areas.
- Address the evident need for a standard database and develop proper infrastructure to compile and store geospatial data. This will avoid the wastage of repeated data collection with differing standards.
- The OMRN can provide a neutral forum to examine and discuss the process of integrating science with policy and management decisions. The objective should be to establish an effective process. Perhaps a proper code of ethics should be defined.
3.3.21 Socio-economics: Coasts and Oceans Chair: Alison Gill
Presenters: Joseph Gough, Richard Williams, Rick Nickerson, Erin Whelk Main Points
The dynamic and changeable nature of industries dependent on coastal resources was a common thread in three presentations.
Gough provided an historic context for Canadian commercial fisheries licensing, from basic licensing to the evolution of IQs and ITQs, revealing regional variations, unforeseen policy consequences and the lack of consensus, while questioning the dearth of debate on the issue. The Canadian Council of Professional Fish Harvesters discussed results of a study on current and future needs for skilled workers in the Canadian fish harvesting industry emphasizing how economic and demographic trends threaten the survival of community-based owner-operator fisheries. Welk presented a case study of a coastal community in BC whose economy has shifted from resource extraction to tourism, and the power relations that are now shaping its tourism development outcomes.
- There is a need for greater understanding and a well-informed debate of commercial fisheries licensing.
- There is a need for a fundamental review of social and economic objectives for fisheries management in the Pacific Region.
- There is a need for reconsideration of the role of owner-operator enterprises.
- Action is required by government to close legal loopholes that allow processors and other non-harvesters to control licenses.
- Government and industry need to work together to help make license purchases more affordable to new entrants.
- The OMRN should encourage fora and debate that promote deeper understanding of issues dealing with commercial fisheries licensing.
- The OMRN should encourage fora that examine processes involved in, and lessons learnt from, coastal communities that shift from a resource-based to a tourism-based economy.